North Carolina

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North Carolina is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the Southern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the South, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte.

Spanish colonial forces were the first Europeans to make a permanent settlement in the area, when the Juan Pardo-led Expedition built Fort San Juan in 1567. This was sited at Joara, a Mississippian culture regional Chiefdom near present-day Morganton in the western interior.[1] This was 20 years before the English established their first colony at Roanoke Island.[2] North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies, and was originally known as Province of Carolina.

On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was one of the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, to which it was restored on July 4, 1868. The state was the location of the first successful controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air flight, by the Wright brothers, at Kill Devil Hills, about Template:Convert from Kitty Hawk on December 17, 1903. It is a fast-growing state with an increasingly diverse economy and population. As of July 1, 2009, the population was estimated to be 9,380,884 (a 16.7% increase since April 1, 2000).[3] Recognizing eight Native American tribes, North Carolina has the largest population of Native Americans of any state east of the Mississippi River.

North Carolina has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to Template:Convert in the mountains. The coastal plains are strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical zone. More than Template:Convert from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a Subtropical highland climate.

As of 2008, North Carolina was the third-fastest growing state in the United States and the fastest growing state east of the Mississippi River according to the 2008 Census.[4]

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State of North Carolina
Flag of North Carolina State seal of North Carolina
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Tar Heel State; Old North State
Motto(s): Esse quam videri (official); First in Flight
before statehood, known as
the Province of North Carolina
Map of the United States with North Carolina highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym North Carolinian; Tar Heel (colloq.)
Capital Raleigh
Largest city Charlotte
Largest metro area Charlotte metro area
Area  Ranked 28th in the US
 - Total 53,865 sq mi
(139,509 km2)
 - Width 150 miles (340 km)
 - Length 560[5] miles (900 km)
 - % water 9.5
 - Latitude 33° 50€² N to 36° 35€² N
 - Longitude 75° 28€² W to 84° 19€² W
Population  Ranked 10th in the US
 - Total 9,380,884 (2009 est.)[3]
 - Density 165.24/sq mi  (63.80/km2)
Ranked 15th in the US
 - Median income  $44,670[6] (38th[6])
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mt. Mitchell[7]
6,684 ft  (2,038 m)
 - Mean 705 ft  (215 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[7]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  November 21, 1789 (12th)
Governor Beverly Perdue (D)
Lieutenant Governor Walter H. Dalton (D)
Legislature General Assembly
  -Upper house Senate
  -Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Richard Burr (R)
Kay Hagan (D)
U.S. House delegation 8 Democrats, 5 Republicans (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations NC US-NC
Website http://www.nc.gov

Geography

Map of North Carolina NA.png
North Carolina is bordered by South Carolina on the south, Georgia on the southwest, Tennessee on the west, Virginia on the north, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. The United States Census Bureau classifies North Carolina as a southern state in the subcategory of being one of the South Atlantic States.

North Carolina consists of three main geographic sections: the coastal plain, which occupies the eastern 45% of the state; the Piedmont region, which contains the middle 35%; and the Appalachian Mountains and foothills. The extreme eastern section of the state contains The Outer Banks, a string of sandy, narrow islands which form a barrier between the Atlantic Ocean and inland waterways. The Outer Banks form two sounds€”Albemarle Sound in the north and Pamlico Sound in the south. They are the two largest landlocked sounds in the United States.

Immediately inland, the coastal plain is relatively flat, with rich soils ideal for growing Tobacco, Soybeans, Melons, and Cotton. The coastal plain is North Carolina's most Rural section, with few large towns or cities. Agriculture remains an important industry. The major rivers of the coastal plain: the Neuse, Tar, Pamlico, and Cape Fear, tend to be slow-moving and wide.

The coastal plain transitions to the Piedmont region along the "Fall line", a line which marks the elevation at which waterfalls first appear on streams and rivers. The Piedmont region of central North Carolina is the state's most urbanized and densely populated section. It consists of gently rolling countryside frequently broken by hills or low mountain ridges. A number of small, isolated, and deeply eroded mountain ranges and peaks are located in the Piedmont, including the Sauratown Mountains, Pilot Mountain, the Uwharrie Mountains, Crowder's Mountain, King's Pinnacle, the Brushy Mountains, and the South Mountains. The Piedmont ranges from about 300–400 feet (90–120 m) elevation in the east to over 1,000 feet (300 m) in the west. Due to the rapid population growth of the Piedmont, many of the farms and much of the rural countryside in this region is being replaced by Suburbanization: shopping centers, housing, and corporation offices. Agriculture is steadily declining in importance in this region. The major rivers of the Piedmont, such as the Yadkin and Catawba, tend to be fast-flowing, shallow, and narrow.

The western section of the state is part of the Appalachian Mountain range. Among the subranges of the Appalachians located in the state are the Great Smoky Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, Great Balsam Mountains, and the Black Mountains. The Black Mountains are the highest in the Eastern United States, and culminate in Mount Mitchell at 6,684 feet (2,037 m).[7] It is the highest point east of the Mississippi River. Although agriculture remains important, Tourism has become the dominant industry in the mountains. One agricultural pursuit which has prospered and grown in recent decades is the growing and selling of Christmas Trees. Due to the higher altitude of the mountains, the climate often differs markedly from the rest of the state. Winters in western North Carolina typically feature significant snowfall and subfreezing temperatures more akin to a midwestern state than a southern one.

North Carolina has 17 major river basins. Those west of the Blue Ridge Mountains flow to the Gulf of Mexico (via the Ohio and then the Mississippi River). All the others flow to the Atlantic Ocean. Of the 17 basins, 11 originate within the state of North Carolina, but only four are contained entirely within the state's borders - the Cape Fear, Neuse, White Oak and Tar-Pamlico.[8]

History

Native Americans, lost colonies, and permanent settlement

North Carolina was originally inhabited by many different prehistoric native cultures. Before 200 AD, they were building earthwork mounds, which were used for ceremonial and religious purposes. Succeeding peoples, including those of the ancient Mississippian culture established by 1000 AD in the Piedmont, continued to build or add on to such mounds. In the 500–700 years preceding European contact, the Mississippian culture built large, complex cities and maintained far flung regional trading networks. Historically documented tribes in the North Carolina region included the Carolina Algonquian-speaking tribes of the coastal areas, such as the Chowanoke, Roanoke, Pamlico, Machapunga, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, and others, who were the first encountered by the English; Iroquoian-speaking Meherrin, Cherokee and Tuscarora of the interior; and Southeastern Siouan tribes, such as the Cheraw, Waxhaw, Saponi, Waccamaw, and Catawba.

Historical marker State of North Carolina boundary with Virginia.JPG

Spanish Explorers' traveling inland in the 16th century met the Mississippian culture people at Joara, a regional chiefdom near present-day Morganton. Records of Hernando de Soto attested to his meeting with them in 1540. In 1567 Captain Juan Pardo led an expedition into the interior to claim the area for the Spanish colony, as well as establish another route to protect silver mines in Mexico. Pardo made a winter base at Joara, which he renamed Cuenca. The expedition built Fort San Juan and left 30 men, while Pardo traveled further, and built and staffed five other forts. He returned by a different route to Santa Elena on Parris Island, South Carolina, then a center of Spanish Florida. In the spring of 1568, natives killed all the soldiers and burned the six forts in the interior, including the one at Fort San Juan. Although the Spanish never returned to the interior, this marked the first European attempt at colonization of the interior of what became the United States. A 16th-century journal by Pardo's scribe Bandera and Archaeological findings since 1986 at Joara have confirmed the settlement.[9][10]

In 1584, Elizabeth I, granted a charter to Sir Walter Raleigh, for whom the state capital is named, for land in present-day North Carolina (then Virginia).[11] Raleigh established two colonies on the coast in the late 1580s, both ending in failure. It was the second American territory the English attempted to colonize. The demise of one, the "Lost Colony" of Roanoke Island, remains one of the mysteries of American history. Virginia Dare, the first English child to be born in North America, was born on Roanoke Island on August 18, 1587. Dare County is named for her.

As early as 1650, colonists from the Virginia colony moved into the area of Albemarle Sound. By 1663, King Charles II of England granted a charter to start a new colony on the North American continent which generally established its borders. He named it Carolina in honor of his father Charles I.[12] By 1665, a second charter was issued to attempt to resolve territorial questions. In 1710, due to disputes over governance, the Carolina colony began to split into North Carolina and South Carolina. The latter became a crown colony in 1729. Smallpox took a heavy toll in the South. The 1738 epidemic was said to have killed one-half of the Cherokee, with other tribes of the area suffering equally.[13]

Colonial period and Revolutionary War

The first permanent European settlers of North Carolina after the Spanish in the 16th century were English colonists who migrated south from Virginia, following a rapid growth of the colony and the subsequent shortage of available farmland. Nathaniel Batts was documented as one of the first of these Virginian migrants. He settled south of the Chowan River and east of the Great Dismal Swamp in 1655.[14] By 1663, this northeastern area of the Province of Carolina, known as the Albemarle Settlements, was undergoing full-scale British settlement.[15] During the same period, the English monarch Charles II gave the province to the Lords Proprietors, a group of noblemen who had helped restore Charles to the throne in 1660. The new province of "Carolina" was named in honor and memory of King Charles I (Latin: Carolus). In 1712, North Carolina became a separate colony. Except for the Earl Granville holdings, it became a royal colony seventeen years later.[16]

Differences in the settlement patterns of eastern and western North Carolina, or the low country and uplands, affected the political, economic, and social life of the state from the eighteenth until the twentieth century. The Tidewater in eastern North Carolina was settled chiefly by immigrants from England and the Scottish Highlands. The upcountry of western North Carolina was settled chiefly by Scots-Irish, English and German Protestants, the so-called "Cohee". Arriving during the mid-to-late 18th century, the Scots-Irish from Ireland were the largest immigrant group before the Revolution. During the Revolutionary War, the English and Highland Scots of eastern North Carolina tended to remain loyal to the British Crown, because of longstanding business and personal connections with Great Britain. The English, Welsh, Scots-Irish and German settlers of western North Carolina tended to favor American independence from Britain.

Most of the English colonists arrived as Indentured servants, hiring themselves out as laborers for a fixed period to pay for their passage. In the early years the line between indentured servants and African Slaves or laborers was fluid. Some Africans were allowed to earn their freedom before slavery became a lifelong status. Most of the free colored families formed in North Carolina before the Revolution were descended from unions or marriages between free white women and enslaved or free African or African-American men. Because the mothers were free, their children were born free. Many had migrated or were descendants of migrants from colonial Virginia.[17] As the flow of indentured laborers to the colony decreased with improving economic conditions in Great Britain, more slaves were imported and the state's restrictions on slavery hardened. The economy's growth and prosperity was based on slave labor, devoted first to the production of Tobacco.

On April 12, 1776, the colony became the first to instruct its delegates to the Continental Congress to vote for independence from the British crown, through the Halifax Resolves passed by the North Carolina Provincial Congress. The dates of both of these events are memorialized on the state flag and state seal.[18] Throughout the Revolutionary War, fierce Guerrilla warfare erupted between bands of pro-independence and pro-British colonists. In some cases the war was also an excuse to settle private grudges and rivalries. A major American victory in the war took place at King's Mountain along the North Carolina-South Carolina border. On October 7, 1780 a force of 1000 mountain men from western North Carolina (including what is today the State of Tennessee) overwhelmed a force of some 1000 British troops led by Major Patrick Ferguson. Most of the British soldiers in this battle were Carolinians who had remained loyal to the British Crown (they were called "Tories"). The American victory at Kings Mountain gave the advantage to colonists who favored American independence, and it prevented the British Army from recruiting new soldiers from the Tories. The road to Yorktown and America's independence from Great Britain led through North Carolina. As the British Army moved north from victories in Charleston and Camden, South Carolina, the Southern Division of the Continental Army and local militia prepared to meet them. Following General Daniel Morgan's victory over the British Cavalry Commander Banastre Tarleton at the Battle of Cowpens on January 17, 1781, southern commander Nathanael Greene led British Lord Charles Cornwallis across the heartland of North Carolina, and away from Cornwallis's base of supply in Charleston, South Carolina. This campaign is known as "The Race to the Dan" or "The Race for the River."[16]

Generals Greene and Cornwallis finally met at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in present-day Greensboro on March 15, 1781. Although the British troops held the field at the end of the battle, their casualties at the hands of the numerically superior American Army were crippling. Following this "Pyrrhic victory", Cornwallis chose to move to the Virginia coastline to get reinforcements, and to allow the Royal Navy to protect his battered army. This decision would result in Cornwallis's eventual defeat at Yorktown, Virginia later in 1781. The Patriots' victory there guaranteed American independence.

Antebellum period

On November 21, 1789, North Carolina became the twelfth state to ratify the Constitution. In 1840, it completed the state capitol building in Raleigh, still standing today. Most of North Carolina's slave owners and large Plantations were located in the eastern portion of the state. Although North Carolina's plantation system was smaller and less cohesive than those of Virginia, Georgia or South Carolina, there were significant numbers of planters concentrated in the counties around the port cities of Wilmington and Edenton, as well as suburban planters around the cities of Raleigh, Charlotte and Durham. Planters owning large estates wielded significant political and socio-economic power in antebellum North Carolina, placing their interests above those of the generally non-slave holding "yeoman" farmers of Western North Carolina. In mid-century, the state's rural and commercial areas were connected by the construction of a 129-mile (208 km) wooden plank road, known as a "farmer's railroad", from Fayetteville in the east to Bethania (northwest of Winston-Salem).[16]

Besides slaves, there were a number of Free people of color in the state. Most were descended from free African Americans who had migrated along with neighbors from Virginia during the eighteenth century. After the Revolution, Quakers and Mennonites worked to persuade slaveholders to free their slaves. Some were inspired by their efforts and the language of men's rights, to arrange for Manumission of their slaves. The number of free people of color rose markedly in the first couple of decades after the Revolution.[19]

On October 25, 1836 construction began on the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad[20] to connect the port city of Wilmington with the state capital of Raleigh. In 1849 the North Carolina Railroad was created by act of the legislature to extend that railroad west to Greensboro, High Point, and Charlotte. During the Civil War the Wilmington-to-Raleigh stretch of the railroad would be vital to the Confederate war effort; supplies shipped into Wilmington would be moved by rail through Raleigh to the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.

During the antebellum period, North Carolina was an overwhelmingly Rural state, even by Southern standards. In 1860 only one North Carolina town, the port city of Wilmington, had a population of more than 10,000. Raleigh, the state capital, had barely more than 5,000 residents.

While slaveholding was slightly less concentrated than in some Southern states, according to the 1860 census, more than 330,000 people, or 33% of the population of 992,622 were enslaved African-Americans. They lived and worked chiefly on plantations in the eastern Tidewater. In addition, 30,463 free people of color lived in the state. They were also concentrated in the eastern coastal plain, especially at port cities such as Wilmington and New Bern where they had access to a variety of jobs. Free African Americans were allowed to vote until 1835, when the state rescinded their suffrage.

American Civil War

Template:See In 1860, North Carolina was a slave state, in which about one-third of the population of 992,622 were enslaved African Americans. This was a smaller proportion than many Southern states. In addition, the state had just over 30,000 Free Negroes.[21] The state did not vote to join the Confederacy until President Abraham Lincoln called on it to invade its sister-state, South Carolina, becoming the last or second to last state to officially join the Confederacy. The title of "last to join the Confederacy" has been disputed because Tennessee informally seceded on May 7, 1861, making North Carolina the last to secede on May 20, 1861.[22][23] However, the Tennessee legislature did not formally vote to secede until June 8, 1861.[24]

North Carolina was the site of few battles, but it provided at least 125,000 troops to the Confederacy€” far more than any other state. Approximately 40,000 of those troops never returned home, dying of disease, battlefield wounds, and starvation. North Carolina also supplied about 15,000 Union troops.[25] Elected in 1862, Governor Zebulon Baird Vance tried to maintain state autonomy against Confederate President Jefferson Davis in Richmond.

Even after secession, some North Carolinians refused to support the Confederacy. This was particularly true of non-slave-owning farmers in the state's mountains and western Piedmont region. Some of these farmers remained neutral during the war, while some covertly supported the Union cause during the conflict. Approximately 2,000 North Carolinians from western North Carolina enlisted in the Union Army and fought for the North in the war, and two additional Union Army regiments were raised in the coastal areas of the state that were occupied by Union forces in 1862 and 1863. Even so, Confederate troops from all parts of North Carolina served in virtually all the major battles of the Army of Northern Virginia, the Confederacy's most famous army. The largest battle fought in North Carolina was at Bentonville, which was a futile attempt by Confederate General Joseph Johnston to slow Union General William Tecumseh Sherman's advance through the Carolinas in the spring of 1865.[16] In April 1865 after losing the Battle of Morrisville, Johnston surrendered to Sherman at Bennett Place, in what is today Durham, North Carolina. This was the last major Confederate Army to surrender. North Carolina's port city of Wilmington was the last Confederate port to fall to the Union. It fell in the spring of 1865 after the nearby Second Battle of Fort Fisher.

The first Confederate soldier to be killed in the Civil War was Private Henry Wyatt, a North Carolinian. He was killed in the Battle of Big Bethel in June 1861. At the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, the 26th North Carolina Regiment participated in Pickett/Pettigrew's Charge and advanced the farthest into the Northern lines of any Confederate regiment. During the Battle of Chickamauga the 58th North Carolina Regiment advanced farther than any other regiment on Snodgrass Hill to push back the remaining Union forces from the battlefield. At Appomattox Court House in Virginia in April 1865, the 75th North Carolina Regiment, a cavalry unit, fired the last shots of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the Civil War. For many years, North Carolinians proudly boasted that they had been "First at Bethel, Farthest at Gettysburg and Chickamauga, and Last at Appomattox."

Racial makeup and population trends

In 2007, the U.S. Census estimated that the racial makeup of North Carolina was as follows: 70% White American, 25.3% African-American, and 1.2% American Indian; 6.5% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race). North Carolina has historically been a Rural state, with most of the population living on farms or in small towns. However, over the last 30 years the state has undergone rapid Urbanization, and today most of North Carolina's residents live in urban and Suburban areas, as in most of the United States. In particular, the cities of Charlotte and Raleigh have become major urban centers, with large, diverse, mainly affluent and rapidly growing populations. The state has received considerable Immigration from Latin America, India, and Southeast Asia.[26]

African-Americans

African-Americans make up nearly a quarter of North Carolina's population. The number of middle-class African-Americans has increased since the 1970s. African-Americans are concentrated in the state's eastern Coastal Plain and in parts of the Piedmont Plateau, where they had historically worked and where the most new job opportunities are. African-American communities number by the hundreds in rural counties in the south-central and northeast, and in predominantly African neighborhoods in the cities: Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham, Greensboro, Fayetteville, Wilmington and Winston-Salem.

Asian Americans

The state has a rapidly growing proportion of Asian Americans, specifically those of Indian, Vietnamese descent; these groups nearly quintupled and tripled, respectively, between 1990 and 2002, as people arrived in the state for new jobs in the growing economy. Recent estimates suggest that the state's Asian-American population has increased significantly since 2000.

European Americans

Settled first, the coastal region attracted primarily English immigrants of the early migrations, including indentured servants transported to the colonies and descendants of English who migrated from Virginia. In addition, there were waves of Protestant European immigration, including the English, many Scots Irish, French Huguenots,[27] and Swiss Germans who settled New Bern; many Pennsylvania Germans came down the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia on the Great Wagon Road and settled in the western Piedmont and the foothills of the Blue Ridge. There is a high concentration of Scots-Irish in western North Carolina. A concentration of Welsh (usually included with others from Britain and Ireland) settled east of present Fayetteville in the 18th century. For a long time the wealthier, educated planters of the coastal region dominated state government.

Hispanics/Latinos

Since 1990 the state has seen an increase in the number of Hispanics/Latinos. Once chiefly employed as migrant labor, Hispanic residents of the 1990s and early 2000s have been attracted to low-skilled jobs. As a result, growing numbers of Hispanic immigrants are settling in the state.Template:Fix

Native Americans

North Carolina has the largest American Indian population of any state on the East Coast. The estimated population figures for Native Americans in North Carolina (as of 2004) is 110,198. To date, North Carolina recognizes eight Native American tribal nations within its state borders. Those tribes are the Coharie, Eastern Band of the Cherokee, Haliwa-Saponi, Lumbee, Meherrin, Sappony, Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation and Waccamaw-Siouan.[28]

Religion

Religious affiliation
Christian 84%
Evangelical Protestant 41%
Mainline Protestant 21%
Black Protestant 13%
Roman Catholic  9%
Buddhist 1%
Other religions 3%
Irreligious 12%
Data as of 2007[29]

North Carolina, as other Southern states, has traditionally been overwhelmingly Protestant, mostly with denominations of British or American origin. The eighteenth-century Moravian settlements in the western Piedmont have provided an interesting variation, as has the late-nineteenth-century Italian Protestant Waldensian settlement in Valdese. By the late nineteenth century, the largest Protestant denomination was the Southern Baptists.

The rapid influx of northerners, people from Florida and immigrants from Latin America, which began in the late twentieth century, is steadily increasing the number of Roman Catholics and Jews in the state, and refugees and other recent immigrants from Asia have brought Buddhism with them. The Baptists do remain the single largest denomination in the state, however.

The religious affiliations of the people of North Carolina, as of 2007, are shown in the chart.



See also

References

  1. Constance E. Richards, "Contact and Conflict", American Archaeologist, Spring 2008, p.14, accessed 26 June 2008
  2. "The Colony At Roanoke". The National Center for Public Policy Research. http://www.nationalcenter.org/ColonyofRoanoke.html. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2009-01.csv. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  4. [1]
  5. "North Carolina Climate and Geography". NC Kids Page. North Carolina Department of the Secretary of State. May 8, 2006. http://www.secretary.state.nc.us/kidspg/geog.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-07. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Median Household Income, from U.S. Census Bureau (from 2007 American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005fckLR. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved 2006-11-06. 
  8. "Watersheds". NC Office of Environmental Education. 2007-02-16. http://www.eenorthcarolina.org/public/ecoaddress/riverbasins/riverbasinmapinteractive.htm. 
  9. David G. Moore, Robin A. Beck, Jr., and Christopher B. Rodning, "Joara and Fort San Juan: culture contact at the edge of the world", Antiquity, Vol.78, No. 229, March 2004, accessed 26 June 2008
  10. Constance E. Richards, "Contact and Conflict" Warren Wilson College, American Archaeologist, Spring 2008, accessed 26 June 2008
  11. Template:Cite bookfckLR
  12. North Carolina State Library - North Carolina History
  13. "Cherokee Indians". Encyclopedia of North Carolina.
  14. Fenn and Wood, Natives and Newcomers, pp. 24-25
  15. Powell, North Carolina Through Four Centuries, p. 105
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Lefler and Newsome, (1973)
  17. Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware, Accessed 15 February 2008
  18. "The Great Seal of North Carolina". NETSTATE. http://www.netstate.com/states/syMbit/seals/nc_seal.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-12. 
  19. John Hope Franklin, Free Negroes of North Carolina, 1789-1860, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1941, reprint, 1991
  20. NC Business History
  21. Historical Census Browser, 1860 US Census, University of Virginia, accessed 21 March 2008
  22. Center for Civic Education
  23. The University of North Carolina
  24. Library of Congress
  25. Classbrain.com
  26. "Contemporary Migration in North Carolina" (PDF). http://www.ncmuseumofhistory.org/collateral/articles/S95.Contemp.Migration.pdf. 
  27. North Carolina-Colonization-The Southern Colonies<!--Bot-generated title-->
  28. "Tribes and Organizations". North Carolina Department of Administration. http://www.doa.state.nc.us/cia/tribesorg.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  29. Pewforum.org

Further reading

Template:Refbegin

  • Powell, William S. and Jay Mazzocchi, eds. Encyclopedia of North Carolina (2006) 1320pp; 2000 articles by 550 experts on all topics; ISBN 0807830712. The best starting point for most research.
  • Clay, James, and Douglas Orr, eds., North Carolina Atlas: Portrait of a Changing Southern State 1971
  • Crow; Jeffrey J. and Larry E. Tise; Writing North Carolina History (1979) online
  • Fleer; Jack D. North Carolina Government & Politics (1994) online political science textbook
  • Hawks; Francis L. History of North Carolina 2 vol 1857
  • Kersey, Marianne M., and Ran Coble, eds., North Carolina Focus: An Anthology on State Government, Politics, and Policy, 2d ed., (Raleigh: North Carolina Center for Public Policy Research, 1989).
  • Lefler; Hugh Talmage. A Guide to the Study and Reading of North Carolina History (1963) online
  • Lefler, Hugh Talmage, and Albert Ray Newsome, North Carolina: The History of a Southern State (1954, 1963, 1973), standard textbook
  • Link, William A. North Carolina: Change and Tradition in a Southern State (2009), 481pp history by leading scholar
  • Luebke, Paul. Tar Heel Politics: Myths and Realities (1990).
  • Powell William S. Dictionary of North Carolina Biography. Vol. 1, A-C; vol. 2, D-G; vol. 3, H-K. 1979-88.
  • Powell, William S. North Carolina Fiction, 1734-1957: An Annotated Bibliography 1958
  • Powell, William S. North Carolina through Four Centuries (1989), standard textbook
  • Ready, Milton. The Tar Heel State: A History of North Carolina (2005) excerpt and text search
  • WPA Federal Writers' Project. North Carolina: A Guide to the Old North State. 1939. famous WPATemplate:Dn guide to every town

Primary sources

  • Hugh Lefler, North Carolina History Told by Contemporaries (University of North Carolina Press, numerous editions since 1934)
  • H. G. Jones, North Carolina Illustrated, 1524-1984 (University of North Carolina Press, 1984)
  • North Carolina Manual, published biennially by the Department of the Secretary of State since 1941.

Template:Refend

External links

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This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia adapted for use as a quick research reference on this wiki. The original content was here: North Carolina. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with the ENC Phillips Group Wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.